Close Close (? or ?), n. [OF. & F. clos an inclosure, fr. clos, p. p. of clore. See Close, v. t.] 1. An inclosed place; especially, a small field or piece of land surrounded by a wall, hedge, or fence of any kind; -- specifically, the precinct of a cathedral or abbey. Closes surrounded by the venerable abodes of deans and canons. --Macaulay. 2. A narrow passage leading from a street to a court, and the houses within. [Eng.] --Halliwell 3. (Law) The interest which one may have in a piece of ground, even though it is not inclosed. --Bouvier., Close Close, n. 1. The manner of shutting; the union of parts; junction. [Obs.] The doors of plank were; their close exquisite. --Chapman. 2. Conclusion; cessation; ending; end. His long and troubled life was drawing to a close. --Macaulay. 3. A grapple in wrestling. --Bacon. 4. (Mus.) (a) The conclusion of a strain of music; cadence. (b) A double bar marking the end. At every close she made, the attending throng Replied, and bore the burden of the song. --Dryden. Syn: Conclusion; termination; cessation; end; ending; extremity; extreme., Close Close, adv. 1. In a close manner. 2. Secretly; darkly. [Obs.] A wondrous vision which did close imply The course of all her fortune and posterity. --Spenser., Close Close, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Closed; p. pr. & vb. n. Closing.] [From OF. & F. clos, p. p. of clore to close, fr. L. claudere; akin to G. schliessen to shut, and to E. clot, cloister, clavicle, conclude, sluice. Cf. Clause, n.] 1. To stop, or fill up, as an opening; to shut; as, to close the eyes; to close a door. 2. To bring together the parts of; to consolidate; as, to close the ranks of an army; -- often used with up. 3. To bring to an end or period; to conclude; to complete; to finish; to end; to consummate; as, to close a bargain; to close a course of instruction. One frugal supper did our studies close. --Dryden. 4. To come or gather around; to inclose; to encompass; to confine. The depth closed me round about. --Jonah ii. 5. But now thou dost thyself immure and close In some one corner of a feeble heart. --Herbert. A closed sea, a sea within the jurisdiction of some particular nation, which controls its navigation.
Corporation Cor`po*ra"tion (k[^o]r`p[-o]*r[=a]"sh[u^]n), n. [L. corporatio incarnation: cf. F. corporation corporation.] A body politic or corporate, formed and authorized by law to act as a single person, and endowed by law with the capacity of succession; a society having the capacity of transacting business as an individual. Note: Corporations are aggregate or sole. Corporations aggregate consist of two or more persons united in a society, which is preserved by a succession of members, either forever or till the corporation is dissolved by the power that formed it, by the death of all its members, by surrender of its charter or franchises, or by forfeiture. Such corporations are the mayor and aldermen of cities, the head and fellows of a college, the dean and chapter of a cathedral church, the stockholders of a bank or insurance company, etc. A corporation sole consists of a single person, who is made a body corporate and politic, in order to give him some legal capacities, and especially that of succession, which as a natural person he can not have. Kings, bishops, deans, parsons, and vicars, are in England sole corporations. A fee will not pass to a corporation sole without the word ``successors' in the grant. There are instances in the United States of a minister of a parish seized of parsonage lands in the right of his parish, being a corporation sole, as in Massachusetts. Corporations are sometimes classified as public and private; public being convertible with municipal, and private corporations being all corporations not municipal. Close corporation. See under Close.
Fertilization Fer`ti*li*za"tion, n. 1. The act or process of rendering fertile. 2. (Biol.) The act of fecundating or impregnating animal or vegetable germs; esp., the process by which in flowers the pollen renders the ovule fertile, or an analogous process in flowerless plants; fecundation; impregnation. Close fertilization (Bot.), the fertilization of pistils by pollen derived from the stamens of the same blossom. Cross fertilization, fertilization by pollen from some other blossom. See under Cross, a.
Harmony Har"mo*ny, n.; pl. Harmonies. [ F. harmonic, L. harmonia, Gr. ? joint, proportion, concord, fr. ? a fitting or joining. See Article. ] 1. The just adaptation of parts to each other, in any system or combination of things, or in things, or things intended to form a connected whole; such an agreement between the different parts of a design or composition as to produce unity of effect; as, the harmony of the universe. 2. Concord or agreement in facts, opinions, manners, interests, etc.; good correspondence; peace and friendship; as, good citizens live in harmony. 3. A literary work which brings together or arranges systematically parallel passages of historians respecting the same events, and shows their agreement or consistency; as, a harmony of the Gospels. 4. (Mus.) (a) A succession of chords according to the rules of progression and modulation. (b) The science which treats of their construction and progression. Ten thousand harps, that tuned Angelic harmonies. --Milton. 5. (Anat.) See Harmonic suture, under Harmonic. Close harmony, Dispersed harmony, etc. See under Close, Dispersed, etc. Harmony of the spheres. See Music of the spheres, under Music. Syn: Harmony, Melody. Usage: Harmony results from the concord of two or more strains or sounds which differ in pitch and quality. Melody denotes the pleasing alternation and variety of musical and measured sounds, as they succeed each other in a single verse or strain.
Reef Reef, n. [Akin to D. reef, G. reff, Sw. ref; cf. Icel. rif reef, rifa to basten together. Cf. Reeve, v. t., River.] (Naut.) That part of a sail which is taken in or let out by means of the reef points, in order to adapt the size of the sail to the force of the wind. Note: From the head to the first reef-band, in square sails, is termed the first reef; from this to the next is the second reef; and so on. In fore-and-aft sails, which reef on the foot, the first reef is the lowest part. --Totten. Close reef, the last reef that can be put in. Reef band. See Reef-band in the Vocabulary. Reef knot, the knot which is used in tying reef pointss. See Illust. under Knot. Reef line, a small rope formerly used to reef the courses by being passed spirally round the yard and through the holes of the reef. --Totten. Reef points, pieces of small rope passing through the eyelet holes of a reef-band, and used reefing the sail. Reef tackle, a tackle by which the reef cringles, or rings, of a sail are hauled up to the yard for reefing. --Totten. To take a reef in, to reduce the size of (a sail) by folding or rolling up a reef, and lashing it to the spar.
Vowel Vow"el, n. [F. voyelle, or an OF. form without y, L. vocalis (sc. littera), from vocalis sounding, from vox, vocis, a voice, sound. See Vocal.] (Phon.) A vocal, or sometimes a whispered, sound modified by resonance in the oral passage, the peculiar resonance in each case giving to each several vowel its distinctive character or quality as a sound of speech; -- distinguished from a consonant in that the latter, whether made with or without vocality, derives its character in every case from some kind of obstructive action by the mouth organs. Also, a letter or character which represents such a sound. See Guide to Pronunciation, [sect][sect] 5, 146-149. Note: In the English language, the written vowels are a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes w and y. The spoken vowels are much more numerous. Close vowel. See under Close, a. Vowel point. See under Point, n.
Close Close, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Closed; p. pr. & vb. n. Closing.] [From OF. & F. clos, p. p. of clore to close, fr. L. claudere; akin to G. schliessen to shut, and to E. clot, cloister, clavicle, conclude, sluice. Cf. Clause, n.] 1. To stop, or fill up, as an opening; to shut; as, to close the eyes; to close a door. 2. To bring together the parts of; to consolidate; as, to close the ranks of an army; -- often used with up. 3. To bring to an end or period; to conclude; to complete; to finish; to end; to consummate; as, to close a bargain; to close a course of instruction. One frugal supper did our studies close. --Dryden. 4. To come or gather around; to inclose; to encompass; to confine. The depth closed me round about. --Jonah ii. 5. But now thou dost thyself immure and close In some one corner of a feeble heart. --Herbert. A closed sea, a sea within the jurisdiction of some particular nation, which controls its navigation.