Normal Nor"mal, n. [Cf. F. normale, ligne normale. See Normal, a.] 1. (Geom.) Any perpendicular. 2. (Geom.) A straight line or plane drawn from any point of a curve or surface so as to be perpendicular to the curve or surface at that point. Note: The term normal is also used to denote the distance along the normal line from the curve to the axis of abscissas or to the center of curvature., Fault Fault, n. 1. (Elec.) A defective point in an electric circuit due to a crossing of the parts of the conductor, or to contact with another conductor or the earth, or to a break in the circuit. 2. (Geol. & Mining) A dislocation caused by a slipping of rock masses along a plane of facture; also, the dislocated structure resulting from such slipping. Note: The surface along which the dislocated masses have moved is called the fault plane. When this plane is vertical, the fault is a vertical fault; when its inclination is such that the present relative position of the two masses could have been produced by the sliding down, along the fault plane, of the mass on its upper side, the fault is a normal, or gravity, fault. When the fault plane is so inclined that the mass on its upper side has moved up relatively, the fault is then called a reverse (or reversed), thrust, or overthrust, fault. If no vertical displacement has resulted, the fault is then called a horizontal fault. The linear extent of the dislocation measured on the fault plane and in the direction of movement is the displacement; the vertical displacement is the throw; the horizontal displacement is the heave. The direction of the line of intersection of the fault plane with a horizontal plane is the trend of the fault. A fault is a strike fault when its trend coincides approximately with the strike of associated strata (i.e., the line of intersection of the plane of the strata with a horizontal plane); it is a dip fault when its trend is at right angles to the strike; an oblique fault when its trend is oblique to the strike. Oblique faults and dip faults are sometimes called cross faults. A series of closely associated parallel faults are sometimes called step faults and sometimes distributive faults.
Nonane Non"ane, n. [L. nonus ninth.] (Chem.) One of a group of metameric hydrocarbons C9H20 of the paraffin series; -- so called because of the nine carbon atoms in the molecule. Normal nonane is a colorless volatile liquid, an ingredient of ordinary kerosene.
Glutaric Glu*tar"ic, a. [Glutamic + tartaric.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid so called; as, glutaric ethers. Glutaric acid, an organic acid obtained as a white crystalline substance, isomeric with pyrotartaric acid; -- called also normal pyrotartaric acid.
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School School, n. [OE. scole, AS. sc?lu, L. schola, Gr. ? leisure, that in which leisure is employed, disputation, lecture, a school, probably from the same root as ?, the original sense being perhaps, a stopping, a resting. See Scheme.] 1. A place for learned intercourse and instruction; an institution for learning; an educational establishment; a place for acquiring knowledge and mental training; as, the school of the prophets. Disputing daily in the school of one Tyrannus. --Acts xix. 9. 2. A place of primary instruction; an establishment for the instruction of children; as, a primary school; a common school; a grammar school. As he sat in the school at his primer. --Chaucer. 3. A session of an institution of instruction. How now, Sir Hugh! No school to-day? --Shak. 4. One of the seminaries for teaching logic, metaphysics, and theology, which were formed in the Middle Ages, and which were characterized by academical disputations and subtilties of reasoning. At Cambridge the philosophy of Descartes was still dominant in the schools. --Macaulay. 5. The room or hall in English universities where the examinations for degrees and honors are held. 6. An assemblage of scholars; those who attend upon instruction in a school of any kind; a body of pupils. What is the great community of Christians, but one of the innumerable schools in the vast plan which God has instituted for the education of various intelligences? --Buckminster. 7. The disciples or followers of a teacher; those who hold a common doctrine, or accept the same teachings; a sect or denomination in philosophy, theology, science, medicine, politics, etc. Let no man be less confident in his faith . . . by reason of any difference in the several schools of Christians. --Jer. Taylor. 8. The canons, precepts, or body of opinion or practice, sanctioned by the authority of a particular class or age; as, he was a gentleman of the old school. His face pale but striking, though not handsome after the schools. --A. S. Hardy. 9. Figuratively, any means of knowledge or discipline; as, the school of experience. Boarding school, Common school, District school, Normal school, etc. See under Boarding, Common, District, etc. High school, a free public school nearest the rank of a college. [U. S.] School board, a corporation established by law in every borough or parish in England, and elected by the burgesses or ratepayers, with the duty of providing public school accommodation for all children in their district. School committee, School board, an elected committee of citizens having charge and care of the public schools in any district, town, or city, and responsible for control of the money appropriated for school purposes. [U. S.]
Spectrum Spec"trum, n.; pl. Spectra. [L. See Specter.] 1. An apparition; a specter. [Obs.] 2. (Opt.) (a) The several colored and other rays of which light is composed, separated by the refraction of a prism or other means, and observed or studied either as spread out on a screen, by direct vision, by photography, or otherwise. See Illust. of Light, and Spectroscope. (b) A luminous appearance, or an image seen after the eye has been exposed to an intense light or a strongly illuminated object. When the object is colored, the image appears of the complementary color, as a green image seen after viewing a red wafer lying on white paper. Called also ocular spectrum. Absorption spectrum, the spectrum of light which has passed through a medium capable of absorbing a portion of the rays. It is characterized by dark spaces, bands, or lines. Chemical spectrum, a spectrum of rays considered solely with reference to their chemical effects, as in photography. These, in the usual photogrophic methods, have their maximum influence at and beyond the violet rays, but are not limited to this region. Chromatic spectrum, the visible colored rays of the solar spectrum, exhibiting the seven principal colors in their order, and covering the central and larger portion of the space of the whole spectrum. Continous spectrum, a spectrum not broken by bands or lines, but having the colors shaded into each other continously, as that from an incandescent solid or liquid, or a gas under high pressure. Diffraction spectrum, a spectrum produced by diffraction, as by a grating. Gaseous spectrum, the spectrum of an incandesoent gas or vapor, under moderate, or especially under very low, pressure. It is characterized by bright bands or lines. Normal spectrum, a representation of a spectrum arranged upon conventional plan adopted as standard, especially a spectrum in which the colors are spaced proportionally to their wave lengths, as when formed by a diffraction grating. Ocular spectrum. See Spectrum, 2 (b), above. Prismatic spectrum, a spectrum produced by means of a prism. Solar spectrum, the spectrum of solar light, especially as thrown upon a screen in a darkened room. It is characterized by numerous dark lines called Fraunhofer lines. Spectrum analysis, chemical analysis effected by comparison of the different relative positions and qualities of the fixed lines of spectra produced by flames in which different substances are burned or evaporated, each substance having its own characteristic system of lines. Thermal spectrum, a spectrum of rays considered solely with reference to their heating effect, especially of those rays which produce no luminous phenomena.
Stannic Stan"nic, a. [L. stannum tin: cf. F. stannique.] (Chem.) Of or pertaining to tin; derived from or containing tin; specifically, designating those compounds in which the element has a higher valence as contrasted with stannous compounds. Stannic acid. (a) A hypothetical substance, Sn(OH)4, analogous to silic acid, and called also normal stannic acid. (b) Metastannic acid. Stannic chloride, a thin, colorless, fuming liquid, SnCl4, used as a mordant in calico printing and dyeing; -- formerly called spirit of tin, or fuming liquor of Libavius. Stannic oxide, tin oxide, SnO2, produced artificially as a white amorphous powder, and occurring naturally in the mineral cassiterite. It is used in the manufacture of white enamels, and, under the name of putty powder, for polishing glass, etc.
Titanic Ti*tan"ic, a. [Cf. F. titanique.] (Chem.) Of or pertaining to titanium; derived from, or containing, titanium; specifically, designating those compounds of titanium in which it has a higher valence as contrasted with the titanous compounds. Titanic acid (Chem.), a white amorphous powder, Ti.(OH)4, obtained by decomposing certain titanates; -- called also normal titanic acid. By extension, any one of a series of derived acids, called also metatitanic acid, polytitanic acid, etc. Titanic iron ore. (Min.) See Menaccanite.