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Asparagus As*par"a*gus, n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, ?; cf. ? to swell with sap or juice, and Zend ?paregha prong, sprout, Pers. asparag, Lith. spurgas sprout, Skr. sphurj to swell. Perh. the Greek borrowed from the Persian. Cf. Sparrowgrass.] 1. (Bot.) A genus of perennial plants belonging to the natural order Liliace[ae], and having erect much branched stems, and very slender branchlets which are sometimes mistaken for leaves. Asparagus racemosus is a shrubby climbing plant with fragrant flowers. Specifically: The Asparagus officinalis, a species cultivated in gardens. 2. The young and tender shoots of A. officinalis, which form a valuable and well-known article of food. Note: This word was formerly pronounced sparrowgrass; but this pronunciation is now confined exclusively to uneducated people. Asparagus beetle (Zo["o]l.), a small beetle (Crioceris asparagi) injurious to asparagus., Oxtongue Ox"tongue`, n. (Bot.) A name given to several plants, from the shape and roughness of their leaves; as, Anchusa officinalis, a kind of bugloss, and Helminthia echioides, both European herbs., Alkanet Al"ka*net, n. [Dim. of Sp. alcana, alhe[~n]a, in which al is the Ar. article. See Henna, and cf. Orchanet.] 1. (Chem.) A dyeing matter extracted from the roots of Alkanna tinctoria, which gives a fine deep red color. 2. (Bot.) (a) A boraginaceous herb (Alkanna tinctoria) yielding the dye; orchanet. (b) The similar plant Anchusa officinalis; bugloss; also, the American puccoon., Asparagus As*par"a*gus, n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, ?; cf. ? to swell with sap or juice, and Zend ?paregha prong, sprout, Pers. asparag, Lith. spurgas sprout, Skr. sphurj to swell. Perh. the Greek borrowed from the Persian. Cf. Sparrowgrass.] 1. (Bot.) A genus of perennial plants belonging to the natural order Liliace[ae], and having erect much branched stems, and very slender branchlets which are sometimes mistaken for leaves. Asparagus racemosus is a shrubby climbing plant with fragrant flowers. Specifically: The Asparagus officinalis, a species cultivated in gardens. 2. The young and tender shoots of A. officinalis, which form a valuable and well-known article of food. Note: This word was formerly pronounced sparrowgrass; but this pronunciation is now confined exclusively to uneducated people. Asparagus beetle (Zo["o]l.), a small beetle (Crioceris asparagi) injurious to asparagus., Betony Bet"o*ny, n.; pl. Betonies. [OE. betony, betany, F. betoine, fr. L. betonica, vettonica.] (Bot.) A plant of the genus Betonica (Linn.). Note: The purple or wood betony (B. officinalis, Linn.) is common in Europe, being formerly used in medicine, and (according to Loudon) in dyeing wool a yellow color., Purpleheart Pur"ple*heart`, n. (Bot.) A strong, durable, and elastic wood of a purplish color, obtained from several tropical American leguminous trees of the genus Copaifera (C. pubiflora, bracteata, and officinalis). Used for decorative veneering. See Copaiba., Marigold Mar"i*gold, n. [Mary + gold.] (Bot.) A name for several plants with golden yellow blossoms, especially the Calendula officinalis (see Calendula), and the cultivated species of Tagetes. Note: There are several yellow-flowered plants of different genera bearing this name; as, the African or French marigold of the genus Tagetes, of which several species and many varieties are found in gardens. They are mostly strong-smelling herbs from South America and Mexico: bur marigold, of the genus Bidens; corn marigold, of the genus Chrysanthemum (C. segetum, a pest in the cornfields of Italy); fig marigold, of the genus Mesembryanthemum; marsh marigold, of the genus Caltha (C. palustris), commonly known in America as the cowslip. See Marsh Marigold. Marigold window. (Arch.) See Rose window, under Rose., Calendula Ca*len"du*la, n. [NL., fr. L. calendae calends.] (Bot.) A genus of composite herbaceous plants. One species, Calendula officinalis, is the common marigold, and was supposed to blossom on the calends of every month, whence the name., Scurvy grass [Scurvy + grass; or cf. Icel. skarfak[=a]l scurvy grass.] (Bot.) A kind of cress (Cochlearia officinalis) growing along the seacoast of Northern Europe and in arctic regions. It is a remedy for the scurvy, and has proved a valuable food to arctic explorers. The name is given also to other allied species of plants., Cubeb Cu"beb (k?"b?b), n. [F. cub?be (cf. It. cubebe, Pr., Sp., Pg., & NL. cubeba), fr. Ar. kab?bat.] The small, spicy berry of a species of pepper (Piper Cubeba; in med., Cubeba officinalis), native in Java and Borneo, but now cultivated in various tropical countries. The dried unripe fruit is much used in medicine as a stimulant and purgative., Eyebright Eye"bright`, n. (Bot.) A small annual plant (Euphrasia officinalis), formerly much used as a remedy for diseases of the eye., Fumitory Fu"mi*to*ry, n. [OE. fumetere, F. fumeterre, prop., smoke of the ground, fr. L. fumus smoke + terra earth. See Fume, and Terrace.] (Bot.) The common uame of several species of the genus Fumaria, annual herbs of the Old World, with finely dissected leaves and small flowers in dense racemes or spikes. F. officinalis is a common species, and was formerly used as an antiscorbutic. Climbing fumitory (Bot.), the Alleghany vine (Adlumia cirrhosa); a biennial climbing plant with elegant feathery leaves and large clusters of pretty white or pinkish flowers looking like grains of rice., Fumaric Fu*mar"ic, a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, fumitory (Fumaria officinalis). Fumaric acid (Chem.), a widely occurring organic acid, exttracted from fumitory as a white crystallline substance, C2H2(CO2H)2, and produced artificially in many ways, as by the distillation of malic acid; boletic acid. It is found also in the lichen, Iceland moss, and hence was also called lichenic acid., Angostura bark An`gos*tu"ra bark` ([aum][ng]`g[o^]s*t[=oo]"r[.a] b[aum]rk`). [From Angostura, in Venezuela.] An aromatic bark used as a tonic, obtained from a South American of the rue family (Galipea cusparia, or officinalis). --U. S. Disp., Gratiolin Gra*ti"o*lin, n. (Chem.) One of the essential principles of the hedge hyssop (Gratiola officinalis)., Hyssop Hys"sop, n. [OE. hysope, ysope, OF. ysope, F. hysope, hyssope, L. hysopum, hyssopum, hyssopus, Gr. ?, ?, an aromatic plant, fr. Heb. [=e]sov.] A plant (Hyssopus officinalis). The leaves have an aromatic smell, and a warm, pungent taste. Note: The hyssop of Scripture is supposed to be a species of caper (Capparis spinosa), but probably the name was used for several different plants., Burdock Bur"dock, n. [Bur + dock the plant.] (Bot.) A genus of coarse biennial herbs (Lappa), bearing small burs which adhere tenaciously to clothes, or to the fur or wool of animals. Note: The common burdock is the Lappa officinalis., Melissa Me*lis"sa, n. [NL., fr. Gr. me`lissa a bee, honey.] (Bot.) A genus of labiate herbs, including the balm, or bee balm (Melissa officinalis)., Agaric Ag"a*ric (?; 277), n. [L. agaricum, Gr. ?, said to be fr. Agara, a town in Sarmatia.] 1. (Bot.) A fungus of the genus Agaricus, of many species, of which the common mushroom is an example. 2. An old name for several species of Polyporus, corky fungi growing on decaying wood. Note: The ``female agaric' (Polyporus officinalis) was renowned as a cathartic; the ``male agaric' (Polyporus igniarius) is used for preparing touchwood, called punk or German tinder. Agaric mineral, a light, chalky deposit of carbonate of lime, sometimes called rock milk, formed in caverns or fissures of limestone., Sage Sage, n. [OE. sauge, F. sauge, L. salvia, from salvus saved, in allusion to its reputed healing virtues. See Safe.] (Bot.) (a) A suffruticose labiate plant (Salvia officinalis) with grayish green foliage, much used in flavoring meats, etc. The name is often extended to the whole genus, of which many species are cultivated for ornament, as the scarlet sage, and Mexican red and blue sage. (b) The sagebrush. Meadow sage (Bot.), a blue-flowered species of Salvia (S. pratensis) growing in meadows in Europe. Sage cheese, cheese flavored with sage, and colored green by the juice of leaves of spinach and other plants which are added to the milk. Sage cock (Zo["o]l.), the male of the sage grouse; in a more general sense, the specific name of the sage grouse. Sage green, of a dull grayish green color, like the leaves of garden sage. Sage grouse (Zo["o]l.), a very large American grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), native of the dry sagebrush plains of Western North America. Called also cock of the plains. The male is called sage cock, and the female sage hen. Sage hare, or Sage rabbit (Zo["o]l.), a species of hare (Lepus Nuttalli, or artemisia) which inhabits the arid regions of Western North America and lives among sagebrush. By recent writers it is considered to be merely a variety of the common cottontail, or wood rabbit. Sage hen (Zo["o]l.), the female of the sage grouse. Sage sparrow (Zo["o]l.), a small sparrow (Amphispiza Belli, var. Nevadensis) which inhabits the dry plains of the Rocky Mountain region, living among sagebrush. Sage thrasher (Zo["o]l.), a singing bird (Oroscoptes montanus) which inhabits the sagebrush plains of Western North America. Sage willow (Bot.), a species of willow (Salix tristis) forming a low bush with nearly sessile grayish green leaves., Soapwort Soap"wort`, n. (Bot.) A common plant (Saponaria officinalis) of the Pink family; -- so called because its bruised leaves, when agitated in water, produce a lather like that from soap. Called also Bouncing Bet., Skink Skink, n. [L. scincus, Gr. ????.] [Written also scink.] (Zo["o]l.) Any one of numerous species of regularly scaled harmless lizards of the family Scincid[ae], common in the warmer parts of all the continents. Note: The officinal skink (Scincus officinalis) inhabits the sandy plains of South Africa. It was believed by the ancients to be a specific for various diseases. A common slender species (Seps tridactylus) of Southern Europe was formerly believed to produce fatal diseases in cattle by mere contact. The American skinks include numerous species of the genus Eumeces, as the blue-tailed skink (E. fasciatus) of the Eastern United States. The ground skink, or ground lizard (Oligosoma laterale) inhabits the Southern United States., Styrax Sty"rax, n. [L. styrax, storax, Gr. ?. See Storax.] 1. (Bot.) A genus of shrubs and trees, mostly American or Asiatic, abounding in resinous and aromatic substances. Styrax officinalis yields storax, and S. Benzoin yields benzoin. 2. Same as Storax., Melluco Mel*lu"co, n. (Bot.) A climbing plant (Ullucus officinalis) of the Andes, having tuberous roots which are used as a substitute for potatoes., Setwall Set"wall`, n. [CF. Cetewale.] (Bot.) A plant formerly valued for its restorative qualities (Valeriana officinalis, or V. Pyrenaica). [Obs.] [Written also setwal.] --Chaucer., Peristerion Per`is*te"ri*on, n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? a dovecote, a kind of verbena, fr. ? a dove, pigeon; cf. L. peristereon.] (Bot.) The herb vervain (Verbena officinalis).