Calculus Cal"cu*lus, n.; pl. Calculi. [L, calculus. See Calculate, and Calcule.] 1. (Med.) Any solid concretion, formed in any part of the body, but most frequent in the organs that act as reservoirs, and in the passages connected with them; as, biliary calculi; urinary calculi, etc. 2. (Math.) A method of computation; any process of reasoning by the use of symbols; any branch of mathematics that may involve calculation. Barycentric calculus, a method of treating geometry by defining a point as the center of gravity of certain other points to which co["e]fficients or weights are ascribed. Calculus of functions, that branch of mathematics which treats of the forms of functions that shall satisfy given conditions. Calculus of operations, that branch of mathematical logic that treats of all operations that satisfy given conditions. Calculus of probabilities, the science that treats of the computation of the probabilities of events, or the application of numbers to chance. Calculus of variations, a branch of mathematics in which the laws of dependence which bind the variable quantities together are themselves subject to change. Differential calculus, a method of investigating mathematical questions by using the ratio of certain indefinitely small quantities called differentials. The problems are primarily of this form: to find how the change in some variable quantity alters at each instant the value of a quantity dependent upon it. Exponential calculus, that part of algebra which treats of exponents. Imaginary calculus, a method of investigating the relations of real or imaginary quantities by the use of the imaginary symbols and quantities of algebra. Integral calculus, a method which in the reverse of the differential, the primary object of which is to learn from the known ratio of the indefinitely small changes of two or more magnitudes, the relation of the magnitudes themselves, or, in other words, from having the differential of an algebraic expression to find the expression itself., Cooperative Co*["o]p"er*a*tive, a. Operating jointly to the same end. Co["o]perative society, a society established on the principle of a joint-stock association, for the production of commodities, or their purchase and distribution for consumption, or for the borrowing and lending of capital among its members. Co["o]perative store, a store established by a co["o]perative society, where the members make their purchases and share in the profits or losses., Cooperative Co*["o]p"er*a*tive, a. Operating jointly to the same end. Co["o]perative society, a society established on the principle of a joint-stock association, for the production of commodities, or their purchase and distribution for consumption, or for the borrowing and lending of capital among its members. Co["o]perative store, a store established by a co["o]perative society, where the members make their purchases and share in the profits or losses., Cooperative Co*["o]p"er*a*tive, a. Operating jointly to the same end. Co["o]perative society, a society established on the principle of a joint-stock association, for the production of commodities, or their purchase and distribution for consumption, or for the borrowing and lending of capital among its members. Co["o]perative store, a store established by a co["o]perative society, where the members make their purchases and share in the profits or losses., Distributive Dis*trib"u*tive, a. [Cf. F. distributif.] 1. Tending to distribute; serving to divide and assign in portions; dealing to each his proper share. ``Distributive justice.' --Swift. 2. (Logic) Assigning the species of a general term. 3. (Gram.) Expressing separation; denoting a taking singly, not collectively; as, a distributive adjective or pronoun, such as each, either, every; a distributive numeral, as (Latin) bini (two by two). Distributive operation (Math.), any operation which either consists of two or more parts, or works upon two or more things, and which is such that the result of the total operation is the same as the aggregated result of the two or more partial operations. Ordinary multiplication is distributive, since a [times] (b + c) = ab + ac, and (a + b) [times] c = ac + bc. Distributive proportion. (Math.) See Fellowship., Improperation Im*prop`er*a"tion, n. [L. improperare, improperatum, to taunt.] The act of upbraiding or taunting; a reproach; a taunt. [Obs.] Improperatios and terms of scurrility. --Sir T. Browne, Inoperation In*op`er*a"tion, n. [L. inoperari to effect; pref. in- in + operari to operate.] Agency; influence; production of effects. [Obs.] --Bp. Hall., Inoperative In*op"er*a*tive, a. [Pref. in- not + operative.] Not operative; not active; producing no effects; as, laws renderd inoperative by neglect; inoperative remedies or processes., Operate Op"er*ate, v. t. 1. To produce, as an effect; to cause. The same cause would operate a diminution of the value of stock. --A. Hamilton. 2. To put into, or to continue in, operation or activity; to work; as, to operate a machine., Operatic Op`er**at"ic, Operatical Op`er*at"ic*al, a. Of or pertaining to the opera or to operas; characteristic of, or resembling, the opera., Operatic Op`er**at"ic, Operatical Op`er*at"ic*al, a. Of or pertaining to the opera or to operas; characteristic of, or resembling, the opera., Operative Op"er*a*tive, n. A skilled worker; an artisan; esp., one who operates a machine in a mill or manufactory., Operatively Op"er*a*tive*ly, adv. In an operative manner., Operatory Op"er*a*to*ry, n. A laboratory. [Obs.], Plastic clay (Geol.), one of the beds of the Eocene period; -- so called because used in making pottery. --Lyell. Plastic element (Physiol.), one that bears within the germs of a higher form. Plastic exudation (Med.), an exudation thrown out upon a wounded surface and constituting the material of repair by which the process of healing is effected. Plastic foods. (Physiol.) See the second Note under Food. Plastic force. (Physiol.) See under Force. Plastic operation, an operation in plastic surgery. Plastic surgery, that branch of surgery which is concerned with the repair or restoration of lost, injured, or deformed parts of the body., Properate Prop"er*ate, v. t. & i. [L. properatus, p. p. of properare to hasten.] To hasten, or press forward. [Obs.], Properation Prop`er*a"tion, n. [L. properatio.] The act of hastening; haste. [Obs.] --T. Adams., Reverse Re*verse", a. [OE. revers, OF. revers, L. reversus, p. p. of revertere. See Revert.] 1. Turned backward; having a contrary or opposite direction; hence; opposite or contrary in kind; as, the reverse order or method. ``A vice reverse unto this.' --Gower. 2. Turned upside down; greatly disturbed. [Obs.] He found the sea diverse With many a windy storm reverse. --Gower. 3. (Bot. & Zo["o]l.) Reversed; as, a reverse shell. Reverse bearing (Surv.), the bearing of a back station as observed from the station next in advance. Reverse curve (Railways), a curve like the letter S, formed of two curves bending in opposite directions. Reverse fire (Mil.), a fire in the rear. Reverse operation (Math.), an operation the steps of which are taken in a contrary order to that in which the same or similar steps are taken in another operation considered as direct; an operation in which that is sought which in another operation is given, and that given which in the other is sought; as, finding the length of a pendulum from its time of vibration is the reverse operation to finding the time of vibration from the length., Subcutaneous Sub`cu*ta"ne*ous, a. Situated under the skin; hypodermic. -- Sub`cu*ta"ne*ous*ly, adv. Subcutaneous operation (Surg.), an operation performed without opening that part of the skin opposite to, or over, the internal section., Subperiosteal Sub*per`i*os"te*al, a. (Anat.) Situated under the periosteum. Subperiosteal operation (Surg.), a removal of bone effected without taking away the periosteum., Unoperative Un*op"er*a*tive, a. Producing no effect; inoperative. [Obs.] --South.